PV Module and Systems

After optimising the material and then the cells, the modules and systems need to be addressed.
Moreover, PV operates outdoors in harsh environmental conditions and should therefore not only be characterised under controlled conditions (in the laboratory). 

The activities on PV modules and systems focus on real-life characterisation, integration of PV into smart-grids and diagnostics.

These activities are supported by several outdoor characterisation benches for PV modules.